Matter-Wave Solitons

A trapped atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with attractive interactions is stable if the number of atoms in it is below a critical value, above which collapse occur. Beneath the collapse threshold, the BEC can form stable wave packets in a one-dimensional (1D) trap, which is tightly confined in two (transverse) directions, and is unbound along the longitudinal axis. In that case, the stability of bright solitons is provided by balance between the quantum pressure, alias matter-wave dispersion, and mean-field attraction. Our Review paper of the early experimental study of matter-wave solitons was published as a chapter in book entitled "Emergent Nonlinear Phenomena in Bose-Einstein Condensates: Theory and Experiment" and edited by P.G. Kevrekidis, D.J. Frantzeskakis, and R. Carretero-Gonzalez, Springer Series on Atomic, Optical, and Plasma Physics , Vol. 45,2008.

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