ABSTRACT: Two Piyyutim from the Hagada: "Adir Hu" and "Adir Bimelukha"

Masoret HaPiyyut, 4 (2007), pp. 37-60  Meir Bar-Ilan


At the end of the 'Hagada shel Pesah' there are few piyyutim that are customarily sung after the Seder, among them are "Adir Hu" and "Adir Bimlukha". This paper aims to trace their sources.

The connection between "Adir Hu" and the Hekhalot literature is shown in the paper, since its structure as litany, its use of the Lord's epithets and its resemblence to other piyyutim in the Hekhalot literature. It is argued that the refrain (a request): "Yibneh beto beQarob" is later than the original piyyut, a piyyut that lacks any specific liturgical function. Lists of the Lord's epithets known from the Talmud and Hekhalot literature are discussed. It is argued that the piyyut is from the 3-5 century c.e.

The second piyyut, "Adir Bimlukha", has no connection to Pesah either, and it is argued that it originated in (the Qedusha) Rosh ha-Shana liturgy. This assumption is based on the frequency of the words "Melukha" and "Mamlakha" on the one hand, and on the reference to angels on the other.

Both piyyutim use almost the same epithets, but the perfection of "Adir Bimlukha" as well as its "haruz" '__kha' and its dependence on the midrash show its relative lateness. A comparison of the piyyut with other piyyutim in Rosh Ha-Shana liturgy, such as "Adirei Ayuma" leads to a conclusion that this piyyut was composed in the Land of Israel in the 6-9 century c.e.